Which of the following statements about the effect of lifestyle on multiple sclerosis (MS) is most valid?
- Exercise has been shown to enhance disability progression.
- While tobacco is clearly detrimental to one’s health, there is no evidence that tobacco is deleterious for MS disability or functional capacity.
- Yoga has been shown to improve mood and fatigue, and an 8-weekl mindfulness meditation class has been shown to improve quality of life, anxiety, depression, and fatigue among patients with MS.
- There is increased prevalence of MS in extreme latitudes; however, case-control studies have not found any association between sunlight and the risk of MS diagnosis and mortality.
That’s correct! #3.
A systematic review identified seven randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of yoga for MS and documented a clinical benefit for mood and fatigue. An 8-week mindfulness-based intervention demonstrated significant improvement in measures of nonphysical quality of life, depression, fatigue, and anxiety compared with usual care in patients with MS. A 2014 systematic review identified three studies using mindfulness for MS and found benefits for quality of life, pain, fatigue, single leg standing balance, anxiety, and depression and these benefits persisted for 6 months after the intervention.
During the 1990’s, people with MS were instructed to avoid strenuous physical activity because of fears that it may worsen neurological status, such as that which occurs when MS patients get overheated. However, current research has demonstrated that physical activity is safe and well-tolerated and has the same health benefits as it does for the general population. In addition, physical fitness and exercise have been associated with improved muscle strength, spasticity, cognition, and reduced fatigue and may even have neuroprotective properties.
Exposure to cigarette smoke has been demonstrated to be a clear risk factor for developing MS, as well as increasing the severity of illness.
There is increased prevalence of MS at extreme latitudes. Furthermore, case-control studies have found that sunlight is associated with reduced of MS diagnosis and mortality.
“Got a revolution. Got to revolution.”